#### Renormalization as a direct-particle-action correction to field theory

One of the notorious difficulties with field theory is its prediction of nonsensical infinite values for physical properties such as energy. Renormalization is a procedure by which divergent parts of a calculation, leading to the nonsensical infinite results, are absorbed by redefinition into a few measurable quantities, so yielding finite answers. This work shows that renormalization counterterms added to field-theoretic Hamiltonians and Lagrangians are a consequence of direct-particle-action corrections to field theory. Some widespread misunderstandings are also corrected.

#### Symplectics

The neologism

*symplectics*deriving from

*symplektikos*the Ancient Greek

*συμπλεκτικός*—combination of

*συμ*«sum» and

*πλεκτικός*«interlacing»— and literally meaning «braided together» or «intertwined» is the new term I have coined to designate a unified and self-consistent approach to understanding the Natural World. Symplectics is based in logic and measurements and can cover both microscopic and macroscopic scales, living and non-living matter, simple and complex phenomena, scientific and philosophical knowledge.

#### There are no negative heat capacities

The existence of exotic systems with anomalous negative heat capacities have been claimed in the recent literature. Those negative heat capacities are responsible for all kind of peculiar thermodynamic behaviors, such as the temperature of the anomalous system being reduced when the system is heated. Close inspection shows that negative heat capacities have not been measured, neither do exist.

#### State space evolution beyond mechanics

Our starting point will be the assumption that the state of our system (biological, physical, chemical, or otherwise) at a given time \( t \) is represented by a collection of \( D \) generic coordinates joined in a vector \( \mathbf{n}(t) = (n_1(t), n_2(t), n_i(t),\ldots n_D(t)) \). Note this vector depends on time

*implicitly*.

#### What is heat?

Everyone has an intuitive conception of heat as something related to temperature, but a rigorous and broadly accepted scientific definition of heat is lacking despite several centuries of study.

#### Instantaneous electromagnetic interactions

Newton introduced a model of instantaneous direct interactions among massive particles. This model was latter replicated by Coulomb for charged particles and became known as action-at-a-distance; an unfortunate name has generated unending polemics among physicists and philosophers. A better name is direct-particle-interaction. Maxwell electrodynamics and general relativity introduced an alternative model of contact-action, where particles do not interact directly but by means of signals traveling through a mediator. Since the maximum possible speed for any object is the speed of light, interactions are retarded in contact-action models. Althought the Newton and Coulomb models are only valid for low velocities, it is proven that retarded interactions can be derived as approximations to generalized instantaneous interactions beyond Newton and Coulomb.

#### Researchgate: Are you kidding?

I lack a Researchgate account, but I noticed that Researchgate has created a fake profile about me where they are archiving works from mine whereas miss-attributing one of them to inexistent coworkers. My paper published on the International Journal of Thermodynamics is miss-attributed to two inexistent coworkers Juan Ramon and Callen Casas-Vazquez, when I am the only author.